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  • A simple optical resonator consists of two mirrors. Its most significant character is the open sides which always produce diffraction losses. The functions of a laser resonator are (a) to achieve optical feedback and to generate laser beam;
  • Light has much relationship with nature matters and living species, since light has a very wide range in its wavelength spectrum (near zero to about 100 mm) and has been underlying in almost every activities of life.
  • The first CO2 laser operated at the wavelength of 10.6m in 1964. Because it is one of the most efficient lasers with 10% conversion efficiency for commercial models it is widely used in laser cutting welding drilling and surface treatment
  • The most common type of beam expander is derived from the Galilean telescope which usually has one negative input lens and one positive output lens.The Galilean telescope is most often employed due to its simplicity small package size and lo
  • The laser marking systems using different lasers and optical delivery systems may be used to mark an almost endless list of materials including metals plastics ceramics glass wood and leather as well as painted surfaces and photographic e
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